World agrees to save and restore biodiversity
Representatives from more than 160 countries agreed in Montreal on a groundbreaking plan to protect biodiversity by 2030. The Global Framework adopted today will significantly increase the proportion of protected areas on land and at sea, create a robust source of funding for wildlife conservation and gradually reduce the amount of pesticides used.
The Global Biodiversity Framework creates a system that will deliver a record amount of biodiversity conservation worldwide. From around $100 billion today, the sum will rise to $200 billion a year by 2030. This includes a doubling of funding from developed countries to developing ones. At least USD 20 billion should be available by 2025 and USD 30 billion by 2030. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) will create a new, separate and flexible Global Biodiversity Facility, which will enable faster mobilisation of funds.
It will also significantly reduce harmful subsidies, which are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. In practice, these are often government programmes that, in effect, damage nature or lead to unsustainable use of natural resources. Examples include subsidies for monoculture, which are given priority over diverse nature, or subsidies for the breeding of specific species.
The volume of funds used in this way will fall by up to USD 500 billion by 2030. In turn, the money thus freed up can be used to encourage farming suitable for promoting biodiversity.
The approved framework also contains major steps to improve the current state of nature and landscapes. 30% of damaged ecosystems, both terrestrial and marine, are to be restored by 2030. In addition, 30% of global land, watercourses, coastal and marine areas are to be under conservation management by 2030. By the same date, the use of pesticides is to be halved worldwide. And very significantly, there is an agreement to reduce excessive losses of nutrients that damage the environment by half. As a result, substances such as phosphorus and nitrogen will not be released into the environment. Another objective is to reduce the spread of invasive species by at least 50% by 2030.
The Global Biodiversity Framework is part of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). It was established in 1992 and has three main objectives: the conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. Parties are required to inventory and monitor biodiversity, integrate conservation and sustainable development concepts into national strategies and economic development, and maintain indigenous conservation practices.